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In Indonesia the differences in how to set the beginning of Ramadan often have an impact on community divisions. This is indeed quite unfortunate. There are several ways that can be done to determine the beginning of fasting, including them using the reckoning method. Although there are many contradictions that some scholars related to the use of this method but there are some Muslims who still use it. The reckoning method itself is a calculation of the Hijriyah calendar carried out systematically based on astronomy to determine the position of the moon in determining the beginning of the month.
Types of Reckoning Method in Establishing the Beginning of Ramadan
Previously you need to know, that the reckoning method to determine the beginning of Ramadan is divided into several types based on the flow, namely urfi reckoning, reckoning taqribi and haqiqi reckoning, what are its characteristics?
Urfi reckoning
Urfi reckoning is a reckoning that is based on a count with simple rules. This reckoning method was used at the time of the Caliph Umar bin Khattab r.a. The Hijriyah calendar calculation is based on the average age of the moon, which is 29 and 30 days. The odd month of the month of Muharram is 30 days and the even month starting from the month of Shafar is 29 days. But specifically in a leap year the number of days in Dhu al-Hijjah is 30 days. Leap years in the Hijriyah calendar calculation occur in 1 cycle with a cycle of 30 years contained in years 2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26 and 29. But this method is no longer used as a reference for determining the beginning of Ramadan because the rules are too simple so it is less accurate.
Reckoning Taqribi
This type of reckoning uses a mathematical method based on astronomical rules. Although they have used astronomical rules, the formula used is still simple. This way of reckoning is a way of reckoning that was inherited by Islamic scholars of Islam which is still used as a reference in learning Falaq in various schools or boarding schools in Indonesia. We can see the results of the calculation of the reckoning taqribi at the time of determination of ijtima and the height of the new moon before the beginning of the month of Ramadan by looking at the difference between the results of reckoning with modern astronomical calculations with a large enough gap.
Reckoning Haqiqi
For now, the Haqiqi type of reckoning is the type of reckoning that is most used by Muslims in determining the beginning and end of Ramadan. Reckoning Haqiqi or also called reckoning is actually a reckoning method based on the calculation of the positions of celestial or astronomical objects and paying attention to various things contained in it so that the astronomical and systematic rules used have been equipped with the latest astronomical data that makes the reckoning results achieve the most accurate accuracy. There are 2 types of Haqiqi reckoning that can be used for the initial determination of Ramadan, namely:
• Hisab Wujudul Hilal
The Reckoning method is often called the Rukyat Bil Ilmi or the method of rukyat using the knowledge to see the new moon. So even though they do not see the hilal directly, if the calculation has determined that the new moon has occurred, the determination of Ramadan can certainly occur. For the implementation of this reckoning method uses two principles namely ijtima or conjunctions that occur before sunset and sunset after sunset states that the beginning of the month has arrived without looking at the height of the moon at sunset In Indonesia this method is not widely used in determining the fasting month, because it is considered less powerful considering that it only uses calculations alone without seeing the new moon signifying the arrival of the beginning of the month.
• Reckoning Imkanur Rukyat
This way of reckoning is the most used method by the people of Indonesia in determining the beginning of Ramadan. In this method the beginning of the month is determined by looking at the position of the new moon based on the requirements that have been set starting from sunset after the ijtima. So in addition to being determined by means of arithmetic or reckoning, the initial determination of fasting can be done after rukyat with the hilal position that can already be seen.
Thus some ways of determining the initial Ramadan based on the reckoning method, may be useful and can increase your knowledge related to the initial determination of fasting ...
Description: Ramadhan can be determined by Hisab method, but to ensure it must also be strengthened by the rukyat method.

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